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Optogenetics has proven to be a powerful tool capable of manipulating the activity of a specific population of cells in a complex multicellular organism. This approach is enthusiastically pursued in recent neuroscience field and the causal relationship between neural activity and behavior is finally starting to become unveiled. However, most studies utilize virus mediated gene transfer for the induction of light-sensitive proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), and such method inevitably introduces surgical injuries and variability of expression between trials. Therefore, transgenic approach has long been sought, however, satisfying the demands of the specificity as well as the abundance of expression were difficult.
In a recent paper published in the Cell Reports, Tanaka and Matsui and their colleagues at the National Institute for Physiological Sciences (Okazaki, Japan) established Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression by improved tetracycline-controlled gene induction system (KENGE-tet). The authors found that high levels of tTA-mediated transcription can be achieved by knocking in tetO-ChR2 cassette into a locus at a housekeeping gene, beta-actin. The authors crossed this tetO-ChR2 knockin mouse with 7 different tTA lines and achieved ChR2 expression in specific cell-types including sub-populations of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells. In all cases, the level of ChR2 expression was … Continue reading