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Tag Archives: Holography
Sensory information is typically represented in distributed patterns of activity across large populations of neurons. Therefore, many emerging neuro-photonic applications, such as optogenetic retinal prostheses require systems capable of delivering intense, parallel and dynamic light patterns. Such a system will ideally allow photo-control with single-cell selectivity of large neural populations expressing optogenetic probes, rather than nonspecific flashed illumination of the whole population (as provided by many current optogenetic light delivery systems). In a recent Nature Communications report, Reutsky-Gefen, Shoham and colleagues demonstrate holographic optogenetic control of retinal neural activity which is shown to provide rapid cellular-resolution, massively parallel excitation across macroscopic (millimeter-scale) coverage areas. The study illustrates that diffractive wavefront shaping (holographic) tools offer a powerful modality for dynamic patterned photo-stimulation as they naturally combine the high intensity, efficiency and resolution that are characteristic of sequential laser deflectors (like acousto-optical deflectors) with the simultaneous scan-less parallel illumination of multiple locations of microdisplay array projectors, but without their respective limitations. Holographic tools were previously shown to allow structured excitation of dendritic arbors and neurons using neurotransmitter photolysis, as well as two-photon optogenetic stimulation of proximal neurons in brain slices.
The study’s main goal was to develop a prosthetic system that would … Continue reading